By Ira M. Lapidus
Lengthy thought of a vintage, A background of Islamic Societies is now that rather more beneficial a reference for normal readers and students alike. extensively praised for its balanced and entire account, Ira Lapidus' paintings has been totally revised in its assurance of every state and quarter of the Muslim international via 2001. It accommodates the origins and evolution of Islamic societies and brings into concentration the historic procedures that gave form to the manifold kinds of modern Islam. The concluding chapters survey the turning out to be impression of the Islamist routine inside of nationwide states and of their transnational or international dimensions, together with the Islamic revival, Islamist politics and terrorism. An up to date dialogue of the jobs of ladies in Islamic societies is further, with new sections approximately Afghanistan and Muslims in Europe, the United States, and the Philippines. Ira M. Lapidus is Professor Emeritus of background on the collage of California at Berkeley. His many books and articles comprise Islam, Politics and Social hobbies (University of California Press, 1988) and Muslim towns within the Later center a long time (Cambridge, 1984).
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39 Mohammad Hashim Kamali, Freedom of Expression in Islam (rev. edn, Cambridge: Islamic Texts Society, 1997); Abdullah Saeed and Hassan Saeed, Freedom of Religion, Apostasy, and Islam (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2004). 40 Kamali, Freedom, p. 93. 41 Peters and de Vries, ‘Apostasy’, pp. 14–15. ; for traditional interpretations; see Yohanan Friedmann, Tolerance and Coercion in Islam: Interfaith Relations in the Muslim Tradition (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003), esp. 100–106. 45 Arguing that since neither apostasy nor blasphemy (such as maligning the Prophet) would threaten the security of the state today as they did in earlier times, he concludes that they should no longer be punishable by death.
26 Non-Muslims under Sharia Rule One of the items in a comprehensive list of deeds and declarations allegedly amounting to unbelief compiled by a Hanafi scholar, Shaykhzade (d. 27 While there was room for debate over the limits of Islamic orthodoxy, non-Muslim subjects of an Islamic state were, and still are, an obvious and potentially disruptive source of dissenting opinion. Traditionally, People of the Book (primarily Jews and Christians, but the category was extended to Zoroastrians and other religious groups) were offered the protection (dhimma) of the Islamic state.
Islamic law deals with the whole range of human experience, such as religious ritual, torts, family law, commerce, property, taxation and legitimate violence. Writing on legal theory, Muhammad al-Ghazali (d. 1111 CE) offered an influential exposition of the principle of maslaha – that which contributes to public well-being: The purpose of the law, as far as humankind is concerned, is to preserve them [sic] their religion, their life, their intellect, their progeny, and their property. 9 Ibn Ishaq, The Life, pp.
A History of Islamic Societies by Ira M. Lapidus